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Processor – Essential Elements, Types, and More


The logic circuit that reacts to and processor the fundamental commands that power a computer is known as a processor (CPU).

Given that it interprets most of a computer’s orders, the CPU is regarded as its leading and most important integrated circuit (IC) component.

Most fundamental logic, I/O, and arithmetic activities are carried out by CPUs, which also issue instructions to other chips and parts of the computer.


  • Although technically speaking, the central processing unit (CPU) is not the only processor in a computer, the terms processor and CPU are frequently used interchangeably.
  • The most prominent example is the GPU (graphics processing unit), but the hard drive and other components inside a computer also carry out some tasks independently.
  • However, the CPU is widely referred to as a processor, nevertheless.
  • PCs, smartphones, tablets, and other computers all have processors. Intel and AMD are the two main rivals in the processor market.

The Essential Elements of a Processor

The essential elements of a processor include:

  • The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic and logical operations on the operands.
  • The floating-point unit (FPU), also known as a math coprocessor or a numeric coprocessor, is a specialized coprocessor that manipulates numbers faster than basic microprocessor circuitry.
  • Registers, which contain instructions and other data. The registers supply operands to the ALU and store the results of the operations.
  • L1 and L2 cache. Putting it on the CPU saves time compared to fetching data from random access memory (RAM).

Different types of processors

1. Microprocessor

  • An embedded microprocessor denotes the basic procedure of the system in embedded systems.
  • Different companies implement several types of microprocessors on the market.
  • The microprocessor is a standard processor consisting of an ALU, a control unit, and a set of control registers, status registers, and temporary registers.
  • It can be on-chip memory; some interfaces can interact with the outside world through interrupt lines, and some can be memory ports and registers to interact with the outside world.
  • One or two microprocessors can be merged to form a multiprocessor. The processors share input and output operations and recall.

2. Microcontroller

  • The microcontroller is standard and available in different sizes and packages.
  • However, reading the input and reacting to its corresponding output is the fundamental function of the basic microcontroller.
  • Which is why they are called general-purpose input-output processors (GPIOs).
  • Some of the microcontrollers are Microchip P1C16F877A, Microchip Atmega328, Microchip P1C18F45K22, Microchip P1C16F671, and Microchip P1C16F1503.

3. Embedded processor

  • The embedded processor is structuring to control electrical and mechanical functions.
  • It comprises numerous blocks, such as timer, program memory, data memory.
  • Reset, power supply, data memory, interrupt controller, clock oscillator systems, interface circuits, specific circuits, and application ports and circuits. System.

4. Digital signal processor

  • The digital signal processor filters, measures, and composes analog and digital signals.
  • Signal processing means the manipulation and analysis of digital signals. This process can be doing using an application-specific integrated circuit.
  • A digital signal processor, a field programmable gate array, or it can be a computer to achieve a different signal.
  • Processors in DSP are using for barcode readers, oscilloscopes, printers, and mobile phones.
  • These processors are using for fast, implicit real-time applications.

Also Read: Mobile Application Development – Device Platforms and More

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